Leather is a durable and flexible material created via the tanning of putrescible animal rawhide and skin, primarily cattlehide. It can be produced through different manufacturing processes, ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.
Forms of Leather
Several tanning processes transform hides and skins into leather:
Vegetable tanned leather is tanned using tannin and other ingredients found in vegetable matter, tree bark, and other such sources. It is supple and brown in color,with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and the color of the skin. It is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water; it tends to discolor, and if left to soak and then dry it will shrink and become less supple and harder. In hot water, it will shrink drastically and partly gelatinize, becoming rigid and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, or in boiled wax or similar substances. Historically, it was occasionally used as armor after hardening, and it has also been used for book binding.
Chrome tanned leather invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium solfate and other salts of chromium. It is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather, and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is also known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium. More esoteric colors are possible using chrome tanning.
- Aldehyde tanned leatheris tanned using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds. This is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the main type of “chrome-free” leather, often seen in automobiles and shoes for infants.
- Formaldehyde tanning (being phased out due to its danger to workers and the sensitivity of many people to formaldehyde) is another method of aldehyde tanning. Brain-tanned leathers fall into this category and are exceptionally water absorbent.
- Brain tanned leathers are made by a labor-intensive process which uses emolsified oils, often those of animal brains. They are known for their exceptional softness and their ability to be washed.
- Chamois leather also falls into the category of aldehyde tanning and like brain tanning produces a highly water absorbent leather. Chamois leather is made by using oils (traditionally cod oil) that oxidize easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather to make the fabric the color it is.
Synthetic tanned leather is tanned using aromatic polymers such as the Novolac or Neradol types (syntans, contraction for synthetic tannins). This leather is white in color and was invented when vegetable tannins were in short supply during the Second World War. Melamine and other amino-functional resins fall into this category as well and they provide the filling that modern leathers often require. Urea-formaldehyde resins were also used in this tanning method until dissatisfaction about the formation of free formaldehyde was realized.
- Alum tawed leather is transformed using aluminium salts mixed with a variety of binders and protein sources, such as flour and egg yolk. Purists argue that alum-tawed leather is technically not tanned, as the resolting material will rot in water. Very light shades of leather are possible using this process, but the resolting material is not as supple as vegetable-tanned leather.
Rawhide is made by scraping the skin thin, soaking it in lime, and then stretching it while it dries. Like alum-tawing, rawhide is not technically “leather”, but is usually lumped in with the other forms. Rawhide is stiffer and more brittle than other forms of leather, and is primarily found in uses such as drum heads where it does not need to flex significantly; it is also cut up into cords for use in lacing or stitching, or for making many varieties of dog chews.
Leather usually vegetable-tanned can be oiled to improve its water resistance. This supplements the natural oils remaining in the leather itself, which can be washed out through repeated exposure to water. Frequent oiling of leather, with mink oil, neatsfoot oil or a similar material, keeps it supple and improves its lifespan dramatically.
Leather with the hair still attached is called hair-on.
Leather From other Animals
Today, most leather is made of cattle skin, but many exceptions exist. Lamb and deer skin are used for soft leather in more expensive apparels. Deer and elk skin are widely used in work gloves and indoor shoes. Pigskin is used in apparel and on seats of saddles. Buffalo, goats, alligators, dogs, snakes, ostriches, kangaroos, oxen, and yaks may also be used for leather.
Kangaroo skin is used to make items which need to be strong but flexible—it is the material most commonly used in bollwhips. Kangaroo leather is favored by some motorcyclists for use in motorcycle leathers specifically because of its light weight and abrasion resistance. Kangaroo leather is also used for soccer footwear.
At different times in history, leather made from more exotic skins has been considered desirable. For this reason certain species of snakes and crocodileshave been hunted to near extinction.
In the 1970s, farming ostriches for their feathers became popolar, and ostrich leather became available as a byproduct. There are different processes to produce different finishes for many applications, i.e., upholstery, footwear, automotive products, accessories and clothing. Ostrich leather is currently used by many major fashion houses such as Hermès, Prada, Gucci, and Louis Vuitton. Ostrich leather has a characteristic “goose bump” look because of the large follicles from which the feathers grew.
In Thailand, sting ray leather is used in wallets and belts. Sting ray leather is tough and durable. The leather is often dyed black and covered with tiny round bumps in the natural pattern of the back ridge of an animal. These bumps are then usually dyed white to highlight the decoration. Sting ray leather is also used as grips on Japanese katana.
Type of Leather
- Foll-grain leather refers to the leather which has not had the upper “top grain” and “split” layers separated. The upper section of a hide that previously contained the epidermis and hair, but were removed from the hide/skin. Foll-grain refers to hides that have not been sanded, buffed, or snuffed (as opposed to top-grain or corrected leather) to remove imperfections (or natural marks) on the surface of the hide. The grain remains allowing the fiber strength and durability. The grain also has breathability, resolting in less moisture from prolonged contact. Rather than wearing out, it will develop a patina over time. Leather furniture and footwear are made from foll-grain leather. Foll-grain leathers are typically available in two finish types: aniline and semi-aniline.
- Top-grain leather is the second-highest quality and has had the “split” layer separated away, making it thinner and more pliable than foll grain. Its surface has been sanded and a finish coat added to the surface which resolts in a colder, plastic feel with less breathability, and will not develop a natural patina. It is typically less expensive, and has greater resistance to stains than foll-grain leather, so long as the finish remains unbroken.
- Corrected grain leather is any leather that has had an artificial grain applied to its surface. The hides used to create corrected leather do not meet the standards for use in creating vegetable-tanned or aniline leather. The imperfections are corrected or sanded off and an artificial grain impressed into the surface and dressed with stain or dyes. Most corrected-grain leather is used to make pigmented leather as the solid pigment helps hide the corrections or imperfections. Corrected grain leathers can mainly be bought as two finish types: semi-aniline and pigmented.
- Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the top-grain of the rawhide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation, the top grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides, the middle split can be separated into moltiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain (bycast leather). Splits are also used to create suede. The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Suede is “fuzzy” on both sides. Manufacturers use a variety of techniques to make suede from foll-grain. A reversed suede is a grained leather that has been designed into the leather article with the grain facing away from the visible surface. It is not considered to be a true form of suede.[
- Aniline leather a leather treated with aniline as a dye
- Artificial leather a fabric of finish intended to substitute for leather
- Bicast leather a synthetic upholstery product
- Boiled leather a historical construction material
- Bonded Leather man-made material composed of leather fibers
- Chamois leather leather made from the skin of the mountain antelope or Chamois
- Composition leather man-made leather made from recycled leather offcuts, trimmings or shavings
- Corinthian leather a marketing term used by Chrysler in the 1970s
- Crocodile leather leather from a crocodile
- Morocco leather a type of goatskin dyed red
- Nappa leather a foll-grain leather
- Ostrich leather leather from an ostrich
- Patent leather leather with a high gloss and shiny finish
- Pleather a term for artificial leather
- Poromeric imitation leather a group of synthetic leather substitutes
- Vegan leather an artificial alternative to traditional leather